A bifurcated palea mutant infers functional differentiation of WOX3 genes in flower and leaf morphogenesis of barley

Takanori Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Hisano, Ken Ichiro Hibara, Jilu Nie, Yuki Tanaka, Jun Ichi Itoh, Shin Taketa

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most highly produced cereal in the world after wheat, rice and maize and is mainly utilized as malts and for animal feed. Barley, a model crop of the tribe Triticeae, is important in comparative analyses of Poaceae. However, molecular understanding about the developmental processes is limited in barley. Our previous work characterized one of two WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3) genes present in the barley genome: NARROW LEAFED DWARF1 (NLD1). We demonstrated that NLD1 plays a pivotal role in the development of lateral organs. In the present study, we describe a bifurcated palea (bip) mutant of barley focusing on flower and leaf phenotypes. The palea in the bip mutant was split into two and develop towards inside the lemma surrounding the carpels and anthers. The bip mutant is devoid of lodicules, which develop in a pair at the base of the stamen within the lemma in normal barley. bip also exhibited malformations in leaves, such as narrow leaf due to underdeveloped leaf-blade width, and reduced trichome density. Map-based cloning and expression analysis indicated that BIP is identical to another barley WOX3 gene, named HvWOX3. The bip nld1 double mutant presented a more severe reduction in leaf-blade width and number of trichomes. By comparing the phenotypes and gene expression patterns of various WOX3 mutants, we concluded that leaf bilateral outgrowth and trichome development are promoted by both NLD1 and HvWOX3, but that HvWOX3 serves unique and pivotal functions in barley development that differ from those of NLD1.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberplac019
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2022


  • Barley
  • Hordeum vulgare
  • floral organ
  • leaf
  • trichome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science


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