AM is a member of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family and consists of a single intramolecular ring structure and amidated C-terminus, which are common to family members. Three types of AMs (AM1, AM2, and AM5) have been identified in mammals although AM5 is mutated and impaired in some species, including human, mouse, and rat. AM is expressed ubiquitously in the body and exerts multiple effects. Vasodilation is the major function of AM derived from the vascular endothelial cells. Plasma AM levels are elevated in various diseases, such as chronic hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart injury, sepsis, cancers, renal impairment, and diabetes, which is useful for estimating the progression of disease. AM KO mice are embryonic lethal with abnormalities of vascular development.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Hormones
Subtitle of host publicationComparative Endocrinology for Basic and Clinical Research
ISBN (Electronic)9780128010280
ISBN (Print)9780128010679
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2015


  • angiogenesis
  • hypertension
  • multiple function
  • vascular endothelial cells
  • vasodilation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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