Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes serious intractable infections in humans and animals. Bacteriophage (phage) therapy has been applied to treat P. aeruginosa infections, and phages belonging to the PB1-like virus genus in the Myoviridae family have been used as therapeutic phages. To achieve safer and more effective phage therapy, the use of preadapted phages is proposed. To understand in detail such phage preadaptation, the short-term antagonistic evolution of bacteria and phages should be studied. In this study, the short-term antagonistic evolution of bacteria and PB1-like phage was examined by studying phage-resistant clones of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and mutant PB1-like phages that had recovered their infectivity. First, phage KPP22 was isolated and characterized; it was classified as belonging to the PB1-like virus genus in the Myoviridae family. Subsequently, three KPP22-resistant PAO1 clones and three KPP22 mutant phages capable of infecting these clones were isolated in three sets of in vitro experiments. It was shown that the bacterial resistance to phage KPP22 was caused by significant decreases in phage adsorption and that the improved infectivity of KPP22 mutant phages was caused by significant increases in phage adsorption. The KPP22-resistant PAO1 clones and the KPP22 mutant phages were then analyzed genetically. All three KPP22-resistant PAO1 clones, which were deficient for the O5 antigen, had a common nonsense mutation in the wzy gene. All the KPP22 mutant phage genomes showed the same four missense mutations in the open reading frames orf060, orf065, and orf086. The information obtained in this study should be useful for further development of safe and efficient phage therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology