Anatomical factors determining surgical decision-making in patients with transposition of the great arteries with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction

Osami Honjo, Yasuhiro Kotani, Tara Bharucha, Luc Mertens, Christopher A. Caldarone, Andrew N. Redington, Glen Van Arsdell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) with or without ventricular septal defect have multiple surgical treatment options. We sought to identify pre- and intraoperative factors that determine the timing of repair, procedure type and subsequent LVOT outcome. METHODS: Twenty-eight (8.2% of all TGA) patients with TGA with LVOTO (double outlet ventricle, n = 5, TGA/intact septum, n = 1) between 2000 and 2012 were reviewed. Anatomical factors were identified by prerepair echocardiography. LVOTO complexity was characterized by the degree of obstruction (0 = none, 0.33 = mild, 0.66 moderate and 1 = severe) at various levels: pulmonary valve (PV) dysplasia/hypoplasia, posterior deviation of the infundibular septum, fibromuscular ridge, tissue tag and abnormal chordal attachment. Summation of the obstruction score, at each level, yielded the LVOT complexity score. The descriptive analysis of intraoperative decision-making at late repair was performed. RESULTS: Operations: early arterial switch operation (ASO) + LVOT resection (n = 9, 32%), late ASO + LVOT resection (n = 3, 10%), Nikaidoh (n = 8, 29%), Rastelli (n = 6, 21%), single-ventricle palliation (n = 2, 7%). The primary LVOT obstruction mechanism was posterior deviation of the infundibular septum (n = 16, 57%) and PV dysplasia (n = 6, 21%). The early ASO group had a lower PV complexity score (0.42 ± 0.22 vs 0.96 ± 0.55, P = 0.007), tissue tag score (0.03 ± 0.15 vs 0.26 ± 0.34, P = 0.018) and LVOT complexity score (2.11 ± 0.86 vs 3.2 ± 0.96, P = 0.006). The LVOT complexity score in the Nikaidoh group was higher than in the late ASO group (P = 0.019). Of 16 candidates for the Nikaidoh procedure, 6 patients underwent a Rastelli operation due to coronary artery patterns (single coronary, n = 3, 1RL-2Cx, n = 2 or an abnormal left anterior descending coronary artery course, n = 1). Two patients underwent single-ventricle palliation due to the interference of essential chordae. All patients survived the operation. The 3-year survival was 96%. One patient who underwent late ASO required re-LVOT resection. CONCLUSIONS: A newly developed scoring system, the LVOT complexity score, helped to quantify the LVOT complexity and was correlated with our choice of the surgical procedure of TGA with LVOTO. The current strategy achieved reasonable survival and LVOT outcome with three quarters of the patients having an anatomically aligned LVOT. The coronary anatomy pattern was the primary determinant in the decision-making between the Nikaidoh procedure and the Rastelli operation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberezt283
Pages (from-to)1085-1094
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Coronary artery pattern
  • Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction
  • Nikaidoh procedure
  • Rastelli operation
  • Transposition of the great arteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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