Apple- and hop-polyphenols protect periodontal ligament cells stimulated with enamel matrix derivative from Porphyromonas gingivalis

Hiroaki Inaba, Motoyuki Tagashira, Tomomasa Kanda, Takashi Ohno, Shinji Kawai, Atsuo Amano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is a tissue regenerative agent used clinically as an adjunct to periodontal surgery. It was previously demonstrated that Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, significantly diminished the efficacy of EMD with periodontal ligament (PDL) cells through the proteolytic actions of Arg- and Lys-gingipains (Rgp and Kgp). Thus, antiproteolytic supplements are considered clinically desirable for effective periodontal regenerative therapies. In the present study, we examined apple- (AP) and hop-polyphenols to determine their ability to protect EMD-stimulated PDL cells from P. gingivalis. Methods: AP, apple condensed tannin (ACT), hop bract polyphenol (HBP), high and low molecular weight fractions of HBP (HMW-HBP and LMW-HBP), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) were used. PDL cells were grown on EMD-coated dishes and infected with P. gingivalis, and cellular migration and proliferation were evaluated with an in vitro assay of wound heating assay in the presence or absence of the polyphenols. Results: Each polyphenol significantly enhanced the viability of PDL cells infected with P. gingivalis, whereas only EGCg demonstrated cytotoxicity. Further, all polyphenols significantly inhibited Rgp activity, with AP, ACT, and HBP more effective toward Kgp. P. gingivalis markedly diminished the migration and proliferation of EMD-stimulated PDL cells, whereas the addition of AP, ACT, HBP, and HMW-HBP significantly protected the cells from bacterial cytotoxicity. In contrast, EGCg and LMW-HBP did not show protective effects. Conclusion: These results suggest that AP, ACT, AP, HBP, and HMW-HBP protect EMD-stimulated PDL cells from P. gingivalis and i-nay be therapeutically useful supplements for EMD therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2223-2229
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of periodontology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Enamel
  • Periodontal ligament
  • Polyphenols
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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