Assessment of workplace bullying and harassment: Reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the negative acts questionnaire

Jiro Takaki, Akizumi Tsutsumi, Yasuhito Fujii, Toshiyo Taniguchi, Kumi Hirokawa, Yuri Hibino, Richard J. Lemmer, Hitomi Nashiwa, Da Hong Wang, Keiki Ogino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Interest in workplace bullying and harassment has been increasing in Japan. At present, the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires for assessing these issues. The purpose of this study was to develop a Japanese version of the NAQ. Methods: We translated the original version of the NAQ using a back-translation method. Participants in this study were recruited from 737 workers at a manufacturing company in Japan. Data were obtained from questionnaires completed by 517 respondents (response rate: 70.1%). Results: We used a cross-validation approach. A three-factor model was obtained from exploratory factor analyses. The confirmatory factor analysis for this model revealed values of 0.94, 0.91, 0.95, and 0.054 for the goodness-of-fit index, the adjusted goodness-of-fit index, the comparative fit index, and the root mean square error of approximation, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficients for the NAQ scores with the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) support scores and the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire scores for respect and job security were significant (p<0.001) and the direction of these associations were consistent with our expectations, with the exceptions of the correlations between the NAQ sexual harassment score and the JCQ support scores. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the scores on the entire NAQ scale and on three subscales (person-related bullying, work-related bullying, and sexual harassment) were 0.90, 0.84, 0.60, and 0.60, respectively. Conclusions: A Japanese version of the NAQ was developed and it appears to have acceptable levels of internal consistency reliability and factor- and construct-validity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-81
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Occupational Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010


  • Psychological stress
  • Reliability
  • Scale development
  • Social behavior
  • Validity
  • Workplace

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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