AtALMT3 is Involved in Malate Efflux Induced by Phosphorus Deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana Root Hairs

Hayato Maruyama, Takayuki Sasaki, Yoko Yamamoto, Jun Wasaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Under phosphorus (P)-deficient conditions, organic acid secretion from roots plays an important role in P mobilization from insoluble P in the soil. In this study, we characterized AtALMT3, a homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana aluminum-activated malate transporter family gene. Among the 14 AtALMT family genes, only AtALMT3 was significantly up-regulated in P-deficient roots. AtALMT3 promoter::β-glucuronidase is expressed in the epidermis in roots, especially in root hair cells. AtALMT3 protein was localized in the plasma membrane and in small vesicles. Fluorescence of AtALMT3::GFP was not observed on the vacuole membrane of protoplast after lysis, indicating that AtALMT3 localizes mainly in the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type (WT) line, malate exudation in the AtALMT3-knockdown line (atalmt3-1) and overexpression line (atalmt3-2) under P deficiency were, respectively, 37% and 126%. In contrast, no significant difference was found in citrate exudation among these lines. The complementation of the atalmt3-1 line with AtALMT3 recovered the malate exudation to the level of the WT. Taken together, these results suggest that AtALMT3 localized in root hair membranes is involved in malate efflux in response to P deficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-115
Number of pages9
JournalPlant and Cell Physiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Arabidopsis
  • Malate transport
  • Phosphorus deficiency
  • Root hair

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology


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