Attainment of solution and gas equilibrium in Japanese geothermal systems

Hitoshi Chiba

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31 Citations (Scopus)


The geothermal fluids in seven Japanese geothermal systems are tested for attainment of aqueous and gaseous equilibrium. The pH of fluids in the geothermal reservoir is approximately buffered by the assemblage K-feldspar—K-mica—quartz. (Na f)/(K+) and (Na+)/ V(Ca3+) activity ratios are ther-modynamically approximated by reactions between albite and K-feldspar, and between albite and anor-thite (or Ca-zeolites), respectively. The (Mg2+)/(K+)2activity ratio of high temperature geothermal fluids of Japan can be represented, by the reaction involving Mg-chlorite and K-bearing silicate minerals, though at lower temperatures other reactions may be responsible. The geothermal fluids are also com-monly saturated with respect to anhydrite and calcite. A small amount of steam loss in the reservoir does not significantly affect the aqueous composition of the fluids. The partial pressure of C02is controlled by the reaction involving calcite, K-bearing silicate minerals, and albite or Ca-zeolite in geothermal systems which are not affected by steam loss and dilution. Equilibrium between CH4, C02and H2 is at-tained at high temperatures but not maintained to lower temperatures in most Japanese geothermal systems. The H2/H2S ratio is probably equilibrated with Fe-bearing minerals. Gaseous compositions are very good indicators to identify processes in the geothermal reservoir, such as boiling and dilution. Last-ly, the major aqueous composition and pH of Japanese neutral Na-Cl type geothermal fluid are predic-table if two variables (e.g., temperature and one of the cation activities) are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-355
Number of pages21
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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