Basic principles for setting acute reference dose, ARfD in Japan

Midori Yoshida, Daisetsu Suzuki, Kiyoshi Matsumoto, Mariko Shirota, Kaoru Inoue, Miwa Takahashi, Takeshi Morita, Atsushi Ono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Basic principles for simulation of acute reference dose (ARfD) setting were defined based on the work of Solecki et al. (2005). The principles are: (l) Appearance of acute toxicity within 24 h after oral administration. (2) Rationale for setting toxicity that appears or could appear after single oral administration. (3) ARfD setting is assumed to be necessary for all pesticides. (4) ARfD setting is not necessary when the value is at or above the cutoff level. (5) The setting basically applies to the general population. (6) ARfD is set based on the lowest NOAEL among all the available study data concerning endpoints for acute effects. (7) Effects of exposure during critical periods should be considered as endpoints for ARfD setting. (8) The approach for the safety coefficient is the same as that for acceptable daily intake. (9) If available, human data are acceptable as an end-point for ARfD setting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-334
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Acute Reference Dose (ARfD)
  • Daily Intake (ADI)
  • Joint Meeting of Pesticides and Residues (JMPR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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