Bifurcated converging pathways for high Ca2+- and TGFβ-induced inhibition of growth of normal human keratinocytes

Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Hiroyuki Sonegawa, Takamasa Nukui, Yoshihiko Sakaguchi, Masahiro Miyazaki, Masayoshi Namba, Nam Ho Huh

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36 Citations (Scopus)


Growth suppression of normal human keratinocytes by high Ca2+ or TGFβ was shown to be mediated by p21WAF1/CIP1 and Sp1 [Pardali, K., et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 29244-29256; Santini, M. P., Talora, C., Seki, T., Bolgan, L. & Dotto, G. P. (2001) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 9575-9580; Al-Daraji, W. I., Grant, K. R., Ryan, K., Saxton, A., & Reynolds, N. J. (2002) J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 779-788]. We previously demonstrated that S100C/A11 is a key mediator for growth inhibition of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHK) triggered by high Ca2+ or TGFβ [Sakaguchi, M., et al. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 163, 825-835; Sakaguchi, M., et al. (2004) 164, 979-984]. On exposure of NHK cells to either agent, S100C/A11 is transferred to nuclei, where it induces p21WAF1/CIP1 through activation of Sp1/Sp3. In the present study, we found that high Ca2+ activated NFAT1 through calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation. In growing NHK cells, Krueppel-like factor (KLF)16, a member of the Sp/KLF family, bound to the p21 WAF1/CIP1 promoter and, thereby, inhibited the transcription of p21WAF1/CIP1. Sp1 complexed with NFAT1 in high Ca2+- treated cells or with Smad3 in TGFβ1-treated cells, but not Sp1 alone, replaced KLF16 from the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter and transcriptionally activated the p21WAF1/CIP1 gene. Thus, high Ca2+ and TGFβ1 have a common S100C/A11-mediated pathway in addition to a unique pathway (NFAT1-mediated pathway for high Ca2+ and Smad-mediated pathway for TGFβ1) for exhibiting a growth inhibitory effect on NHK cells, and both pathways were shown to be indispensable for growth inhibition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13921-13926
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number39
Publication statusPublished - Sept 27 2005


  • Krueppel-like factor
  • NFAT1
  • S100
  • Smad
  • p21

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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