Bipolar anodic electrochemical exfoliation of graphite powders

Hideki Hashimoto, Yusuke Muramatsu, Yuta Nishina, Hidetaka Asoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


The electrochemical exfoliation of graphite has attracted considerable attention as a method for large-scale, rapid production of graphene and graphene oxide (GO). As exfoliation typically requires direct electrical contact, and is limited by the shape and/or size of the starting graphite, treatment of small graphite particles and powders, the typical form available commercially, is extremely difficult. In this study, GO nanosheets were successfully prepared from small graphite particles and powders by a bipolar electrochemical process. Graphite samples were placed between two platinum feeder electrodes, and a constant current was applied between the feeder electrodes using dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to examine the samples obtained after electrolysis. The results obtained from these analyses confirmed that anodic electrochemical exfoliation occurs in the graphite samples, and the exfoliated samples are basically highly crystalline GO nanosheets with a low degree of oxidation (C/O = 3.6–5.3). This simple electrochemical method is extremely useful for preparing large amounts of graphene and GO from small particles of graphite.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106475
JournalElectrochemistry Communications
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019


  • Anode
  • Bipolar electrochemistry
  • Electrochemical exfoliation
  • Graphene
  • Graphene oxide
  • Graphite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry


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