Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a severe pathological condition associated mainly with the long-term administration of bone resorption inhibitors, which are known to induce suppression of osteoclast activity and bone remodeling. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-2 is known to be a strong inducer of bone remodeling, by directly regulating osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BMP-2 adsorbed onto beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), which is an osteoinductive bioceramic material and allows space retention, on the prevention and treatment of MRONJ in mice. Tooth extraction was performed after 3 weeks of zoledronate (ZA) and cyclophosphamide (CY) administration. For prevention studies, BMP-2/β-TCP was transplanted immediately after tooth extraction, and the mice were administered ZA and CY for an additional 4 weeks. The results showed that while the tooth extraction socket was mainly filled with a sparse tissue in the control group, bone formation was observed at the apex of the tooth extraction socket and was filled with a dense connective tissue rich in cellular components in the BMP-2/β-TCP transplanted group. For treatment studies, BMP-2/β-TCP was transplanted 2 weeks after tooth extraction, and bone formation was followed up for the subsequent 4 weeks under ZA and CY suspension. The results showed that although the tooth extraction socket was mainly filled with soft tissue in the control group, transplantation of BMP-2/β-TCP could significantly accelerate bone formation, as shown by immunohistochemical analysis for osteopontin, and reduce the bone necrosis in tooth extraction sockets. These data suggest that the combination of BMP-2/β-TCP could become a suitable therapy for the management of MRONJ.
- Bone regeneration
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry