C-Arm-Free Anterior Correction for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (Lenke Type 5C): Analysis of Early Outcomes and Complications

Masato Tanaka, Yoshihiro Fujiwara, Koji Uotani, Taro Yamauchi, Hauo Misawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Computer-assisted spinal surgery as a technique for reducing radiation exposure to the operating staff and the complications of spinal deformity are receiving considerable attention. However, no technical reports have described the technique for navigating anterior correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis without C-arm fluoroscopy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this new C-arm-free anterior correction for scoliosis. Methods: This study investigated 38 consecutive patients with Lenke type 5C curves who underwent selective lumbar or thoracolumbar fusion, comprising 26 patients with conventional anterior correction surgery, and 12 patients with C-arm-free navigation surgery. The 2 groups were evaluated immediately postoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up. Results: No vascular injuries, screw malpositioning, or major complications were associated with the surgical procedure in either group. Correction rates of the lumbar curve were satisfactory with no significant difference between groups (mean, 82.6% ± 5.7% vs. 80.7% ± 10.2%, respectively). However, mean time for fluoroscopy in group C was 133 ± 9.5 seconds (P < 0.0001). No significant differences in intraoperative blood loss (642 ± 123 mL vs. 731 ± 222 mL, respectively) or surgical time (251 ± 13 min vs. 301 ± 38 min, respectively) were seen between groups. Mean final follow-up Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS-22) was also excellent for both group C (4.2 ± 0.19) and group N (4.3 ± 0.20). Conclusions: C-arm-free anterior correction offers safe, effective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The advantage of this new technique is no radiation exposure for medical staff at centers performing large numbers of spinal procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e561-e569
JournalWorld Neurosurgery
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
  • C-arm-free
  • Lumbar scoliosis
  • Navigation surgery
  • O-arm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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