CDPKs CPK6 and CPK3 function in ABA regulation of guard cell S-type anion- and Ca2+- permeable channels and stomatal closure

Izumi C. Mori, Yoshiyuki Murata, Yingzhen Yang, Shintaro Munemasa, Yong Fei Wang, Shannon Andreoli, Hervé Tiriac, Jose M. Alonso, Jeffery F. Harper, Joseph R. Ecker, June M. Kwak, Julian I. Schroeder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

494 Citations (Scopus)


Abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction has been proposed to utilize cytosolic Ca2+ in guard cell ion channel regulation. However, genetic mutants in Ca2+ sensors that impair guard cell or plant ion channel signaling responses have not been identified, and whether Ca2+- independent ABA signaling mechanisms suffice for a full response remains unclear. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been proposed to contribute to central signal transduction responses in plants. However, no Arabidopsis CDPK gene disruption mutant phenotype has been reported to date, likely due to overlapping redundancies in CDPKs. Two Arabidopsis guard cell-expressed CDPK genes, CPK3 and CPK6, showed gene disruption phenotypes. ABA and Ca2+ activation of slow-type anion channels and, interestingly, ABA activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-permeable channels were impaired in independent alleles of single and double cpk3cpk6 mutant guard cells. Furthermore, ABA- and Ca2+-induced stomatal closing were partially impaired in these cpk3cpk6 mutant alleles. However, rapid-type anion channel current activity was not affected, consistent with the partial stomatal closing response in double mutants via a proposed branched signaling network. Imposed Ca2+ oscillation experiments revealed that Ca 2+-reactive stomatal closure was reduced in CDPK double mutant plants. However, longlasting Ca2+-programmed stomatal closure was not impaired, providing genetic evidence for a functional separation of these two modes of Ca2+-induced stomatal closing. Our findings show important functions of the CPK6 and CPK3 CDPKs in guard cell ion channel regulation and provide genetic evidence for calcium sensors that transduce stomatal ABA signaling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1749-1762
Number of pages14
JournalPLoS biology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'CDPKs CPK6 and CPK3 function in ABA regulation of guard cell S-type anion- and Ca2+- permeable channels and stomatal closure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this