Cell-based biological pacemakers: Progress and problems

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11 Citations (Scopus)


The number of permanent pacemaker implantations has been increasing due to the aging of populations worldwide and the increase in the numbers of patients with heart diseases. Commercially available mechanical pacemakers are very useful but still have some problems including short battery life, a risk of infection, the absence of physiological autonomic responsiveness, metal allergy, and electronic interference. A biological pacemaker may resolve these problems and regenerate the cardiac pacemaker. Cell-based therapy and gene therapy have been addressed with the goal of solving the challenges of biological pacemaker. However, the clinical application of a biological pacemaker has not yet been realized. Here we discuss the types of cells that can be used for a biological pacemaker and the problems that remain regarding the clinical applications of cell-based therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalActa medica Okayama
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Biological pacemaker
  • Cardiomyocytes
  • Cell therapy
  • Hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 4
  • Pluripotent stem cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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