Clinical Outcomes of Inside Stents and Conventional Plastic Stents as Bridge-to-Surgery Options for Malignant Hilar Biliary Obstruction

Hirotoshi Ishiwatari, Takanori Kawabata, Hiroki Kawashima, Yousuke Nakai, Shin Miura, Hironari Kato, Hideyuki Shiomi, Nao Fujimori, Takeshi Ogura, Osamu Inatomi, Kensuke Kubota, Toshio Fujisawa, Mamoru Takenaka, Hiroshi Mori, Kensaku Noguchi, Yuki Fujii, Teiichi Sugiura, Noboru Ideno, Tomoki Nakafusa, Atsushi MasamuneHiroyuki Isayama, Naoki Sasahira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The appropriate method of preoperative endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) for cholangiocarcinoma with hilar biliary obstruction remains controversial. The inside-stent technique is a method of placing plastic stents entirely inside the bile duct. Several studies of patients with unresectable stage have reported longer stent patency compared with conventional endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS). Inside-stent techniques have been introduced as a bridge-to-surgery option and as an alternative to conventional EBS. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of inside stent use and conventional EBS. Methods: During this retrospective multicenter study, we reviewed consecutive patients with cholangiocarcinoma who underwent radical surgery after conventional EBS or inside-stent insertion. Adverse event (AE) rates after EBD and post-surgical AEs were compared. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors affecting cholangitis after EBD. Results: Conventional EBS and inside-stent procedures were performed for 56 and 73 patients, respectively. Patient backgrounds were similar between groups, except for percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization. The waiting time before surgery was similar between groups (28.5 days vs. 30 days). There were no significant differences in the cholangitis rate (21.4% vs. 26.0%; P = 0.68) and all AEs (25.0% vs. 30.1%; P = 0.56) between groups. The post-surgical AE rate was similar between the groups. The multivariable analysis found that preprocedural cholangitis was a risk factor for cholangitis after EBD (odds ratio: 5.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.61–19.9). Conclusions: The outcomes of inside-stent techniques and conventional EBS for the management of preoperative EBD are comparable for patients with cholangiocarcinoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1139-1147
Number of pages9
JournalDigestive Diseases and Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Cholestasis
  • Sphincterotomy, endoscopic biliary stenting
  • Stents
  • Surgical procedure, Biliary

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Gastroenterology


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