Cloning of the Xenopus laevis aldolase C gene and analysis of its promoter function in developing Xenopus embryos and A6 cells

Hitomi Yatsuki, Mamoru Outida, Yasuo Atsuchi, Tunehiro Mukai, Koichiro Shiokawa, Katsuji Hori

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8 Citations (Scopus)


A Xenopus aldolase C gene (XACλ3-1), much longer (9.6 kb) than human and rat genes (3.7-3.6 kb), was isolated and characterized, and expression studies were performed using Xenopus embryos and A6 cells, a kidney cell line constitutively expressing aldolase C gene. The Xenopus gene contained nine exons, and in its proximal 5'-upstream region a GC box and a 16 bp long aldolase C-specific element (ACSE), and in addition, a CCAAT box and a TATA- like element, both missing in mammalian genes. The lacZ gene connected to the 5'-upstream region (1.6 kb) of the aldolase gene containing many potentially regulative sequence elements was expressed in embryos temporally and spatially like the endogenous aldolase C gene. Deletion experiments using embryos and A6 cells suggested that this 5'-upstream DNA contained in its distal part a region which negatively affected on its expression in embryos, but not in A6 cells. The proximal-most region contained a basal promoter (68 bp) essential for expression in both embryos and A6 cells. Deletion experiments using A6 cells failed to detect such regulative regions within the first intron (spanning ca. 4 kb). Analyses with mutated promoters in A6 cells revealed that the GC box was the crucial element in the basal promoter, although the TATA-like element appeared to have a slightly stimulative effect on the GC box functioning. Gel retardation and foot-printing assays revealed the occurrence in A6 cells of a nuclear factor(s) that binds specifically to the GC box. Since Xenopus aldolase C gene has several unique structural features, we expect that it will provide an interesting material for studying the evolution and developmental control of the aldolase C gene.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-217
Number of pages19
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Structure and Expression
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - Nov 8 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • A6 cell
  • DNA microinjection
  • GC box
  • Truncated and mutated promoter
  • Xenopus aldolase C gene
  • Xenopus embryo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Genetics


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