Cognitive factors associated with locomotive syndrome in chronic pain patients: A retrospective study

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Prevention and treatment for locomotive syndrome (LS) are important for extending healthy life expectancy. The 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale (GLFS-25) was developed to diagnose LS. The Fear-Avoidance model was proposed to explain pain chronicity. LS and chronic pain decrease activities of daily living; however, the relationships between LS and factors related to chronic pain in the Fear-Avoidance model are unknown. Objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of LS and examine the factors of the Fear-Avoidance model and the GLFS-25 that affect the prevalence of LS in patients with chronic pain. Methods: Participants included 281 patients (99 men, 182 women) aged over 40 years with chronic pain who visited our outpatient clinic for chronic pain. All participants completed the GLFS-25, numeric rating scale (NRS), pain catastrophizing scale (PCS), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), and Athene insomnia scale (AIS). According to a GLFS-25 cutoff point, participants were divided into three groups (LS-2; GLFS-25 ≥ 16, LS-1; 7 ≤ GLFS-25 < 16, and non-LS; GLFS-25 < 7 points) and each parameter was compared among the groups, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Next, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with the GLFS-25. Results: Of all 281 patients, 241 (85.8%) patients were diagnosed with LS-2. Univariate analysis revealed there were significant differences in NRS, PCS, HADS anxiety, HADS depression, and AIS among groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed PCS was significantly associated with LS-2 prevalence. The GLFS-25 was positively correlated with NRS, HADS depression, AIS in multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusions: We found that patients with chronic pain in our outpatient clinic had a significant rate of LS-2. The prevalence of LS-2 was significantly correlate with pain catastrophizing, and the GLFS-25 was significantly correlated with higher pain intensity, depression, and insomnia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)896-901
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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