Comparison and interpretation of graphitization in contact and regional metamorphic rocks

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Abstract X‐ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of carbonaceous materials were carried out in conjunction with petrological studies for selected metamorphic rocks in order to compare the structural state of carbonaceous materials between contact and regional metamorphic rocks. The most extensive study was done for the Daimonji contact aureole in the eastern part of Kyoto city, Japan. The Daimonji contact aureole can be divided into three mineral zones using mineral parageneses of pelitic rocks: chlorite, biotite and cordierite zones. The cordierite zone can be further subdivided into lower‐ and higher‐grade subzones. Petrological considerations allow the two isograd reactions that define the lower‐ and higher‐grade cordierite subzones to be determined and suggest these reactions occurred at 510–560°C and 560–590°C per 2.0‐2.3 kbar, respectively. A combination of the petrological studies and the XRD data of carbonaceous materials suggest that fully ordered graphite (FG; defined by d(002) ≤ 3.360 Å following the convention used by many workers), appears around 560–590°C in the Daimonji contact aureole. This data and refinement of geothermometer for published data confirmed that the FG appears at 400–500°C in regional metamorphic rocks, but at higher than 530°C in contact aureoles. One possible explanation for such a temperature difference is the duration of heating. However, the width at half height (WH) of the graphite peak attains a similar value of 0.30° at around 500°C both in contact and regional metamorphic rocks, suggesting that WH value is a more reliable indicator of metamorphic grade than the change of d(002) value. Furthermore, the depressed d(002) data of graphite was observed locally in the higher grade part (≥ 500°C) of the Ryoke regional metamorphic belt, where granitic intrusions exist within a few km distance. These facts indicate that the duration of heating is not an important factor controlling the change of d(002) value. It is possible that interlayered impurities, such as chlorine, which was derived from igneous intrusions, may be an important factor in suppressing the reduction in d(002) at temperatures greater than 500°C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-127
Number of pages16
JournalIsland Arc
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • carbonaceous material
  • contact metamorphism
  • fully ordered graphite
  • graphite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology


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