Comprehensive analysis of sucrolytic enzyme gene families in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

Taro Harada, Itsuku Horiguchi, Sayaka Ueyama, Ai Murai, Chie Tsuzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sucrose plays crucial roles in growth and responses of plants to the environment, including those in ornamental species. During post-harvest handling of cut flowers, sucrose degradation is an essential process of inter- and intra-cellular carbon partitioning affecting flower opening and senescence and, subsequently, flower quality. However, complete information about the molecular basis of sucrose degradation in ornamental flowers, which can be catalyzed by two kinds of sucrolytic enzymes, invertase (INV), and sucrose synthase (SUS), is not available from past reports. The present study shows that sucrose treatment of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) florets increased starch content in petals, accompanied by decreased vacuolar INV (VIN) activity and increased SUS activity. However, hypoxic treatment of carnation florets decreased sucrose content and cell-wall INV (CWIN) activity in petals. In silico analysis using the carnation genome database identified six CWIN, three VIN, eight cytoplasmic INV (CIN), and five SUS genes. Real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that these genes are differentially expressed in carnation petals in response to sucrose and hypoxic treatments, partially corresponding to the changes in enzyme activities. In contrast to DcSUS1 (Dca4507.1), a SUS gene already reported in carnation, which showed preferential expression under aerated conditions, the expression of DcSUS2 (Dca22218.1), an undescribed carnation SUS gene, was enhanced under hypoxia similarly to an alcohol dehydrogenase gene DcADH1 (Dca18671.1). These results suggest that sugar metabolism in carnation petals is regulated in response to environmental cues, accompanied by modulated activities and gene expression of a set of sucrolytic enzymes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112607
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Caryophyllaceae
  • Dianthus caryophyllus
  • Gene expression
  • Gene family
  • Hypoxia
  • Invertase
  • Sucrose
  • Sucrose synthase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Plant Science
  • Horticulture


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