Vacuum foam drying is a promising drying technique but an extremely high vacuum is needed to achieve “foaming.” The findings reported herein show that, when a solution is partially vacuum-dried to 0.05–2 g-solvent/g-dry matter (initial drying) and the solution is then punctured with a steel needle (needle stimulation), vacuum drying resumes as a result of the solution foaming, even under conditions of an insufficient vacuum (ca. 1,000 Pa) where foaming is minimal. Methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol were used as solvents, and sugar and different molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone were employed as solutes. The results indicate that needle puncturing introduces minute bubbles, which then triggers foaming.
- Foam drying
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Chemical Engineering
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry