Conversion of sub-µm calcium carbonate (calcite) particles to hollow hydroxyapatite agglomerates in K2HPO4 solutions

Sun Yanyan, Wang Guangxin, Li Wuhui, Wang Yaming, Satoshi Hayakawa, Akiyoshi Osaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Sub-µm CaCO3 (calcite; CC) particles were converted to calcium monohydrogenphosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) via soaking treatments in K2HPO4 solutions with varied pH (3-12) and concentrations (0.1-1.5 M) at 37°C for up to 10 days. DCPD was derived from the solutions with pH ≤ 6; while hollow HAp was yielded when pH ≥ 7 in assemblies of petal-like crystallites. Results of magic angle spinning (MAS) and cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) NMR studies have shown that the HAp lattice has only PO42− but no HPO42− at B (phosphate) sites. Trace amounts of CO32− have occupied both A (OH) and B (PO4) sites, and H2O is adsorbed on surface crystallites. The primary crystallite size of HAp derived from Scherrer equation increases quickly in a 12 h period and becomes gradually stable afterward. Samples of particles soaked within 3 h in a temperature range of 20-80°C were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the rate constant of 1 M solution is about an order of magnitude greater than that of 0.1 M solution and the apparent activation energy is 33 kJ/mol. In this work, the conversion of CC to HAp can be quantitatively controlled to solve the problem of slow degradation of HAp.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)945-960
Number of pages16
JournalNanotechnology Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Calcium carbonate
  • Hollow particles
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Kinetic analysis
  • NMR
  • Potassium monohydrogen phosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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