Crack Detection for Welded Joint with Surface Coating Using Unsaturated AC Magnetic Flux Leakage

Minoru Hayashi, Taisei Kawakami, Shoya Adachi, Jin Wang, Kenji Sakai, Toshihiko Kiwa, Keiji Tsukada, Yohei Miyamoto, Mikihito Hirohata, Toshiyuki Ishikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Fatigue cracks occurred in the welds of steel structure are easily propagated. Therefore, it is important to detect the fatigue cracks at an early stage. However, most of the steel structures are protected by surface coating, which requires removing and restoring the coating for the inspection. This makes the inspection time-consuming. Magnetic methods such as eddy current testing (ECT) and magnetic flux leakage (MFL) can be used without removal of surface coating. However, these magnetic methods are difficult to apply to the shape of the welds and affected by non-uniform magnetic permeability. In this study, we developed a sensor probe adapted to the shape of the welded joint using the unsaturated AC magnetic flux leakage (USAC-MFL), which is less affected by the non-uniform magnetic permeability. To evaluate the performance of the developed sensor probe, the welded joint samples with the surface coating and shallow cracks of which depth ranges from 1 mm to 5 mm were measured. The measurement results showed a strong correlation between the intensity of the magnetic flux leakage and the crack depth. The detection performance was evaluated using confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The area under curves (AUCs) of the ROC curves were around 0.9. In order to maximize the true positive rate (TPR) and minimize the false negative rate (FPR), the threshold of the intensity to identify a crack was obtained using the ROC curve. As the results of evaluating the detection performance using the obtained threshold, the four metrics (Accuracy, Precision, Recall, Specification) were all above 0.8.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Coatings
  • magnetic flux leakage testing
  • magnetic sensor
  • nondestructive testing
  • Probes
  • Saturation magnetization
  • Steel
  • steel structure
  • Surface cracks
  • Surface treatment
  • welded joint
  • Welding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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