Current cardioplegia practice in pediatric cardiac surgery: A North American multiinstitutional survey

Yasuhiro Kotani, James Tweddell, Peter Gruber, Christian Pizarro, Erle H. Austin, Ronald K. Woods, Colleen Gruenwald, Christopher A. Caldarone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Citations (Scopus)


Background There are a wide variety of reported techniques with few comparative trials and no current data available by which surgeons can compare their myopreservation strategies across the specialty. We therefore surveyed congenital heart surgeons to develop a profile of current practice. Methods One hundred twenty-two members of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society were surveyed, and 56 responses were analyzed. The survey focused on cardioplegia formulations, dosage and administration, and perfusion strategies for four age groups: neonates, infants, children, and adolescents. All percentages are expressed as percentage of the entire reporting cohort (n = 56). Results Eighty-six percent of surgeons use blood-based cardioplegia versus crystalloid cardioplegia. Microplegia is used in 5%. Blood-based cardioplegia additives include del Nido (38%), customized solutions (32%), St. Thomas, Plegisol, or Baxter (11%), and microplegia (5%). Crystalloid cardioplegia types are Custodiol (7%), St. Thomas, Plegisol, or Baxter (5%), and customized solutions (2%). Cold (<10 C) cardioplegia is most common (93%), and "hot shots" are used in 21%. Moderate (26 to 30 C) hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is more common in neonates and infants compared with older children and adolescents. Antegrade administration is most common (89%). Longer intervals between cardioplegia doses were associated with surgeons using del Nido and Custodiol solutions, and these solutions were commonly administered with a single dose regardless of aortic cross-clamp time. Conclusions Myocardial protection techniques still remained highly variable among congenital heart surgeons. This survey demonstrates that there is a perception that del Nido and Custodiol solutions can offer appropriate myocardial protection for longer intervals with decreased repeat dosing. An observational study correlating markers of postoperative myocardial performance with myocardial preservation strategies should be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)923-929
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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