Current treatment strategies and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery systems for pulmonary arterial hypertension

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14 Citations (Scopus)


There are three critical pathways for the pathogenesis and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): the prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2) (PGI2), nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin pathways. The current approved drugs targeting these three pathways, including prostacyclin (PGI2), phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, and endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), have been shown to be effective, however, PAH remains a severe clinical condition and the long-term survival of patients with PAH is still suboptimal. The full therapeutic abilities of available drugs are reduced by medication, patient non-compliance, and side effects. Nanoparticles are expected to address these problems by providing a novel drug delivery approach for the treatment of PAH. Drug-loaded nanoparticles for local delivery can optimize the efficacy and minimize the adverse effects of drugs. Prostacyclin (PGI2) analogue, PDE5 inhibitors, ERA, pitavastatin, imatinib, rapamycin, fasudil, and oligonucleotides-loaded nanoparticles have been reported to be effective in animal PAH models and in vitro studies. However, the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle mediated-drug delivery systems for PAH treatment in humans are unknown and further clinical studies are required to clarify these points.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5885
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2019


  • Endothelin
  • Nitric oxide
  • Prostaglandin I
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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