CYP2C polymorphisms, phenytoin metabolism and gingival overgrowth in epileptic subjects

Yoshihiko Soga, Fusanori Nishimura, Yoko Ohtsuka, Hiroaki Araki, Yoshihiro Iwamoto, Hisa Naruishi, Nobuyuki Shiomi, Yoshitomo Kobayashi, Shogo Takashiba, Kenji Shimizu, Yutaka Gomita, Eiji Oka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)


Previous studies suggested that the onset of phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth depended on serum phenytoin concentration. Cytochrome P450 2C (CYP2C) plays an important role in phenytoin metabolism. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of CYP 2C influencing phenytoin metabolism were identified. The purpose of the present study was to see if CYP 2C polymorphisms might relate to the onset and severity of phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth. Twenty-eight epileptic patients taking phenytoin aged 15 to 75 (mean age: 42.2 years old, 20 males and 8 females) and 56 unrelated healthy subjects aged 30 to 48 (mean age: 36.8 years old, 48 males and 8 females) were examined for CYP 2C polymorphisms. All epileptic subjects were examined for the degree of gingival overgrowth, daily phenytoin dose and serum phenytoin concentration. The results indicated about 7% of the subjects including epileptic and healthy subjects examined were positive for CYP 2C9*3. However, the degree of gingival overgrowth did not directly correlate with CYP 2C polymorphisms. Nevertheless, the subjects with severer gingival overgrowth exhibited significantly higher serum phenytoin concentration, indicating that phenytoin metabolism is an important determinant for the severity of the disease. Additionally, CYP 2C9*3 carriers exhibited significantly higher serum drug concentration to drug dose. Therefore, we concluded although the gene analysis is not directly related to diagnose the disease itself, it can be utilized in estimating serum phenytoin concentration from drug dose, which in turn serves to predict the future development and clinical course of the disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)827-834
Number of pages8
JournalLife Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2 2004


  • Cytochrome P450
  • Gingival overgrowth
  • Phenytoin
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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