Damage factors for small embankment dams due to the hyogoken-nambu earthquake - Case study on Hokudan Town-

Hiroaki Fujii, Kana Kunimasa, Akiyo Nanba, Takayuki Yokomizo, Shin Ichi Nishimura, Kiyoshi Shimada, Toshio Hori, Tatsuro Nishiyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This study was performed to clarify which factors affected damage to tame-ike (small embankment darns for irrigation) in Hokudan Town as a result of the January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu earthquake. Factors were assumed to be: Location (e.g., Distance to Epicenter, etc.), Structure (e.g., Angle to Nearest Fault, Embankment Volume, etc.), Soil Properties of Embankment, Geology of Dam Site and History (Era of Construction, Repaired, etc.). Multivariate statistical analyses were performed for documentary data (damaged: 181, undamaged: 328). Ordinary statistical analyses were conducted for the data investigated in situ for soil properties of the embankment. The results show that the factors causing damage to dam are: (1) Nearest Fault (Nojima, Mizukoshi and D2), (2) Distance to Nearest Fault (less than 500 m), (3) Distance to Epicenter (approximately 8 to 14 km, which almost agrees with the location of seismic intensity 7 JMA), (4) Elevation of Dam Site (higher than 100 m), (5) Embankment Volume (the greater the volume the more damage was caused), (6) Direction of Dam Axis (normal or diagonal to the epicenter or to nearest the fault), (7) Plan View of Dam Axis (3 or 4 axes), (8) Surface Geology of Dam Site (non-cohesive soil type ground), (9) Era of Construction (prior to 1891) and (10) Soil Properties of Embankment (sand, not silty sand or gravel, penetration resistance that is 10% smaller than the undamaged dams).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-131
Number of pages15
JournalSoils and Foundations
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2000


  • Case history
  • Compaction
  • Dam
  • Earthquake damage
  • Site investigation
  • Statistical analysis (IGC: E8/H4/E6)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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