DCT-OFDM watermarking scheme based on communication system model

Minoru Kuribayashi, Shogo Shigemoto, Nobuo Funabiki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In conventional spread spectrum (SS) watermarking schemes, random sequences are used for the modulation of watermark information. However, because of the mutual interference among those sequences, it requires complicated removal operation to improve the performance. In this paper, we propose an efficient spread spectrum watermarking scheme by introducing the orthogonal frequency divisiion multiplexing (OFDM) technique at the modulation of watermark information. The SS sequences in the proposed method are the DCT basic vectors modulated by a pseudo-random number (PN) sequence. We investigate the SS-based method considering the host interference at the blind detection scenario and analyze the noise caused by attacks. Because every operation is invertible, the quantization index modulation (QIM)-based method is applicable for the OFDM modulated signals. We also consider the property of watermark extracting operation in SS-based and QIM-based method and formalize their models of noisy channel in order to employ an error correcting code. The performance of their methods with error correcting code is numerically evaluated under the constraints of same distortion level in watermarked content. The experimental results indicated a criteria for the selection of SS-based and QIM-based methods for given content, which is determined by the amount of host interference. In case that the host interference is 0.8 times smaller than a watermark signal, the SS-based method is suitable. When it is 1.0 times larger, the QIM-based method should be selected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)944-952
Number of pages9
JournalIEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017


  • Error correcting code
  • OFDM
  • QIM
  • Spread spectrum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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