Deep learning for osteoporosis classification using hip radiographs and patient clinical covariates

Norio Yamamoto, Shintaro Sukegawa, Akira Kitamura, Ryosuke Goto, Tomoyuki Noda, Keisuke Nakano, Kiyofumi Takabatake, Hotaka Kawai, Hitoshi Nagatsuka, Keisuke Kawasaki, Yoshihiko Furuki, Toshifumi Ozaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


This study considers the use of deep learning to diagnose osteoporosis from hip radiographs, and whether adding clinical data improves diagnostic performance over the image mode alone. For objective labeling, we collected a dataset containing 1131 images from patients who underwent both skeletal bone mineral density measurement and hip radiography at a single general hospital between 2014 and 2019. Osteoporosis was assessed from the hip radiographs using five convolutional neural network (CNN) models. We also investigated ensemble models with clinical covariates added to each CNN. The accuracy, precision, recall, specificity, negative predictive value (npv), F1 score, and area under the curve (AUC) score were calculated for each network. In the evaluation of the five CNN models using only hip radiographs, GoogleNet and EfficientNet b3 exhibited the best accuracy, precision, and specificity. Among the five ensemble models, EfficientNet b3 exhibited the best accuracy, recall, npv, F1 score, and AUC score when patient variables were included. The CNN models diagnosed osteoporosis from hip radiographs with high accuracy, and their performance improved further with the addition of clinical covariates from patient records.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1534
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Deep learning
  • Ensemble model
  • Hip radiograph
  • Osteoporosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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