Responses of plant cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS), e.g., reprogramming of defense genes or progression of cell death, should include the ROS signal transmission to target proteins, but the biochemistry of this process is largely unknown. Lipid peroxide-derived α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones (reactive carbonyl species; RCS), downstream products of ROS stimuli, are recently emerging endogenous agents that can mediate ROS signal to proteins via covalent modification. The involvement of RCS in certain ROS signaling in plants (oxidative injury of leaves and roots, ROS-induced programmed cell death, senescence, and abscisic acid and auxin signaling) has been verified by the determination of RCS with the use of conventional HPLC. Because distinct kinds of RCS act differently in the cell and so are metabolized, identification and quantification of each RCS in plant tissues provide central information to decipher biochemical mechanisms of plant responses to ROS. This article illustrates practical methods of plant sample preparation and extraction and analysis of RCS.