Development of a human-tissue-like phantom for 3.0-T MRI

Yusuke Ikemoto, Wataru Takao, Keisuke Yoshitomi, Seiichiro Ohno, Takashi Harimoto, Susumu Kanazawa, Koichi Shibuya, Masahiro Kuroda, Hirokazu Kato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: A 3.0-T MRI phantom having human-tissue-equivalent relaxation times was developed. Methods: The ingredients of the phantom are carrageenan (for gelatinization), GdCl3 (as a T1-relaxation modifier), agarose (as a T2-relaxation modifier), and NaN3 (as an antiseptic agent). Numerous samples with varying concentrations of GdCl 3 and agarose were prepared, and T1 and T2 were measured using 3.0-T MRI. Results: Relaxation times of the phantom samples ranged from 395 to 2601 ms for T1 values and 29 to 334 ms for T 2 values. Based on the measured results, empirical formulae were devised to express the relationships between the concentrations of relaxation modifiers and relaxation times. Conclusions: Adjustment of GdCl3 and agarose concentrations allows arbitrary setting of relaxation times, and the creation of a phantom that can mimic relaxation times of human-tissue. Carrageenan is considered the most suitable as a gelling agent for an MRI phantom, as it permits the relatively easy and inexpensive production of a large phantom such as for the human torso, and which can be easily shaped with a knife.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6336-6342
Number of pages7
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011


  • 3.0-T MRI
  • GdCl3
  • agarose
  • carrageenan
  • phantom

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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