Development of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues for 3.0-T MRI

Kengo Hattori, Yusuke Ikemoto, Wataru Takao, Seiichiro Ohno, Takashi Harimoto, Susumu Kanazawa, Masataka Oita, Koichi Shibuya, Masahiro Kuroda, Hirokazu Kato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: A 3.0-T MRI phantom (called the CAGN-3.0T phantom) having human-equivalent relaxation times and human-equivalent conductivity was developed. Methods: The ingredients of the phantom are carrageenan (as a gelatinizer), agarose (as a T2-relaxation modifier), GdCl3 (as a T1-relaxation modifier), NaCl (as a conductivity modifier), and NaN3 (as an antiseptic). Numerous samples with varying concentrations of agarose, GdCl3, and NaCl were prepared, and T 1 and T2 values were measured using 3.0-T MRI. Results: The T1 values of the CAGN-3.0T phantom were unaffected by NaCl, while the T2 values were only slightly affected. Based on the measured data, empirical formulae were devised to express the relationships between the concentrations of agarose, GdCl3, and NaCl and the relaxation times. The formula for expressing the conductivity of the CAGN-3.0T phantom was obtained. Conclusions: By adjustments to the concentrations of agarose, GdCl3, and NaCl, the relaxation times and conductivity of almost all types of human tissues can be simulated by CAGN-3.0T phantoms. The phantoms have T1 values of 395-2601 ms, T2 values of 29-334 ms, and conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when concentrations of agarose, GdCl3, and NaCl are varied from 0 to 2.0 w/w%, 0 to 180 μmol/kg, and 0 to 0.7 w/w%, respectively. The CAGN-3.0T phantom has sufficient strength to replicate the torso without using reinforcing agents, and can be cut with a knife into any shape.

Original languageEnglish
Article number032303
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


  • 3.0T MRI
  • conductivity
  • phantom

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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