The grain color of wheat affects not only the brightness of flour, but also tolerance to preharvest sprouting. Grain color is controlled by dominant R-1 genes located on the long arm of hexaploid wheat chromosomes 3A, 3B, and 3D (R-A1, R-B1, and R-D1, respectively). The red pigment of the grain coat is composed of catechin and proanthocyanidin (PA), which are synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. We isolated the Tamyb10-A1, Tamyb10-B1, and Tamyb10-D1 genes, located on chromosomes 3A, 3B, and 3D, respectively. These genes encode R2R3-type MYB domain proteins, similar to TT2 of Arabidopsis, which controls PA synthesis in testa. In recessive R-A1 lines, two types of Tamyb10-A1 genes: (1) deletion of the first half of the R2-repeat of the MYB region and (2) insertion of a 2.2-kb transposon belonging to the hAT family. The Tamyb10-B1 genes of recessive R-B1 lines had 19-bp deletion, which caused a frame shift in the middle part of the open reading frame. With a transient assay using wheat coleoptiles, we revealed that the Tamyb10 gene in the dominant R-1 allele activated the flavonoid biosynthetic genes. We developed PCR-based markers to detect the dominant/recessive alleles of R-A1, R-B1, and R-D1. These markers proved to be correlated to known R-1 genotypes of 33 varieties except for a mutant with a single nucleotide substitution. Furthermore, double-haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between red- and white-grained lines were found to necessarily carry functional Tamyb10 gene(s). Thus, PCR-based markers for Tamyb10 genes are very useful to detect R-1 alleles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science