Direct measurement of interaction forces between surfaces in liquids using atomic force microscopy

Naoyuki Ishida, Vincent S.J. Craig

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


The stability of particle suspensions, which is important in numerous industrial processes, is generally dominated by the interaction forces between the suspended particles. Understanding the interaction forces between surfaces in liquids is therefore fundamentally important in order to evaluate and control how particulates, including fluid droplets in emulsions and air bubbles in foams, behave in various systems. The invention of the surface force apparatus (SFA) enabled the direct measurement of interaction forces in liquids with molecular level resolution and it has led to remarkable progress in understanding surface forces in detail. Following the SFA, the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to force measurement has further extended the possibility of force measurements to a broad field of research, mainly due to the range of materials that can be employed. This review provides an overview of developments in the investigation of interaction forces between surfaces using AFM. The properties of various interaction forces, important in particle technology, revealed by the studies using AFM are described in detail.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-200
Number of pages14
JournalKONA Powder and Particle Journal
Publication statusPublished - Jan 10 2019


  • Atomic force microscopy
  • Direct measurement
  • Interaction force
  • Liquid phase
  • Suspension stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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