Discomfort during bronchoscopy performed after endobronchial intubation with fentanyl and midazolam: A prospective study

Daisuke Minami, Nagio Takigawa, Hirohisa Kano, Takashi Ninomiya, Toshio Kubo, Eiki Ichihara, Kadoaki Ohashi, Akiko Sato, Katsuyuki Hotta, Masahiro Tabata, Mitsune Tanimoto, Katsuyuki Kiura

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Although endobronchial intubation during a bronchoscopic examination is useful for invasive procedures, it is not routine practice in Japan. The present study evaluated discomfort due to endobronchial intubation using fentanyl and midazolam sedation during bronchoscopy.Methods: Thirty-nine patients were enrolled prospectively from November 2014 to September 2015 at Okayama University Hospital. Fentanyl (20 μg) was administered to the patients just before endobronchial intubation, and fentanyl (10 μg) and midazolam (1 mg) were added as needed during the procedure. A questionnaire survey was administered 2 h after the examination. In the questionnaire, patient satisfaction was scored using a visual analog scale as follows: excellent (1 point), good (2 points), normal (3 points), uncomfortable (4 points) and very uncomfortable (5 points). An additional question ('Do you remember the bronchoscopic examination?') was also asked. Predefined parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and complications) were recorded.Results: The enrolled patients included 22 males and 17 females; their median age was 70 (range: 28-88) years. The patients received a mean dose of 47.9 μg of fentanyl (range: 30-90 μg) and 2.79 mg of midazolam (range: 1-7 mg). In total, 28 patients (71.7%) agreed to undergo a second bronchoscopic examination; the mean levels of discomfort and for the re-examination were 2.07 points each. About 41% of the patients remembered the bronchoscopic examination. No severe complications were reported.Conclusion: Endobronchial intubation using fentanyl and midazolam sedation during an invasive bronchoscopic procedure might be recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberhyx022
Pages (from-to)434-437
Number of pages4
JournalJapanese journal of clinical oncology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2017


  • Clinical trials
  • Endobronchial intubation
  • Endoscopy-respiratory tract
  • Interventional pulmonology
  • Sedation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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