Early Regulation of Axolotl Limb Regeneration

Aki Makanae, Akira Satoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Amphibian limb regeneration has been studied for a long time. In amphibian limb regeneration, an undifferentiated blastema is formed around the region damaged by amputation. The induction process of blastema formation has remained largely unknown because it is difficult to study the induction of limb regeneration. The recently developed accessory limb model (ALM) allows the investigation of limb induction and reveals early events of amphibian limb regeneration. The interaction between nerves and wound epidermis/epithelium is an important aspect of limb regeneration. During early limb regeneration, neurotrophic factors act on wound epithelium, leading to development of a functional epidermis/epithelium called the apical epithelial cap (AEC). AEC and nerves create a specific environment that inhibits wound healing and induces regeneration through blastema formation. It is suggested that FGF-signaling and MMP activities participate in creating a regenerative environment. To understand why urodele amphibians can create such a regenerative environment and humans cannot, it is necessary to identify the similarities and differences between regenerative and nonregenerative animals. Here we focus on ALM to consider limb regeneration from a new perspective and we also reported that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Src signaling controlled fibroblasts migration in axolotl limb regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1566-1574
Number of pages9
JournalAnatomical Record
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012


  • Accessory limb model
  • Fibroblast growth factor
  • Limb regeneration
  • Matrix metalloproteinase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Biotechnology
  • Histology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


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