Ectopic Fgf signaling induces the intercalary response in developing chicken limb buds

Aki Makanae, Akira Satoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Intercalary pattern formation is an important regulatory step in amphibian limb regeneration. Amphibian limb regeneration is composed of multiple steps, including wounding, blastema formation, and intercalary pattern formation. Attempts have been made to transfer insights from regeneration-competent animals to regeneration-incompetent animalsat each step in the regeneration process. In the present study, we focused on the intercalary mechanism in chick limb buds. In amphibian limb regeneration, a proximodistal axis is organized as soon as a regenerating blastema is induced. Intermediate structures are subsequently induced (intercalated) between the established proximal and distal identities. Intercalary tissues are derived from proximal tissues. Fgf signaling mediates the intercalary response in amphibian limb regeneration. Results: We attempted to transfer insights into intercalary regeneration from amphibian models to the chick limb bud. The zeugopodial part was dissected out, and the distal and proximal parts were conjunct at st. 24. Delivering ectopic Fgf2 + Fgf8 between the distal and proximal parts resulted in induction of zeugopodial elements. Examination of HoxA11 expression, apoptosis, and cell proliferation provides insights to compare with those in the intercalary mechanism of amphibian limb regeneration. Furthermore, the cellular contribution was investigated in both the chicken intercalary response and that of axolotl limb regeneration. Conclusions: We developed new insights into cellular contribution in amphibian intercalary regeneration, and found consistency between axolotl and chicken intercalary responses. Our findings demonstrate that the same principal of limb regeneration functions between regeneration-competent and-incompetent animals. In this context, we propose the feasibility of the induction of the regeneration response in amniotes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8
JournalZoological Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 19 2018


  • Axolotl
  • Chick
  • Fgf signaling
  • HoxA11
  • Intercalation
  • Limb development
  • Limb regeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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