Effect of anthocyanin composition in grape skin on anthocyanic vacuolar inclusion development and skin coloration

H. Mizuno, K. Hirano, G. Okamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Berry skin coloration, the content and composition of anthocyanin and anthocyanic vacuolar inclusion (AVI) development were investigated in two black cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) and Pione (V. vinifera x V. labrusca, 4x), and one red cv., Red Port (V. vinifera x V. labrusca). Pione had lower L* (lightness of the skin) and higher color index values than Cabernet Sauvignon, indicating that Pione had darker skin color than Cabernet Sauvignon. The two black cultivars had high contents of malvidin, while the major anthocyanidin of Red Port was cyanidin and delphinidin. This difference of anthocyanidin composition was responsible for the red color of Red Port. Whereas the anthocyanidin composition of the two black cultivars showed little difference, the percentage of acylated anthocyanins was markedly higher in Pione than in Cabernet Sauvignon. The diameter of AVIs was similar between Pione and Cabernet Sauvignon, but the density of AVIs was higher in cv. Pione. This difference in AVI development affects grape skin coloration. A comparison of the anthocyanin composition in isolated AVIs and that in whole cell tissue showed that in all three cultivars the percentage of acylated anthocyanins was high in the AVIs. In Pione skins the high percentage of acylated anthocyanins might result in many AVIs to be formed, and might be responsible for the dark coloration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-177
Number of pages5
JournalVitis - Journal of Grapevine Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 23 2006


  • Acylation
  • Anthocyanic vacuolar inclusion
  • Anthocyanin
  • Grape coloration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Horticulture


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