Effect of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation With or Without Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease on the Risk of Nonrelapse Mortality

Yu Akahoshi, Shun Ichi Kimura, Yoshihiro Inamoto, Sachiko Seo, Hiroyuki Muranushi, Hiroaki Shimizu, Yukiyasu Ozawa, Masatsugu Tanaka, Naoyuki Uchida, Yoshinobu Kanda, Yuta Katayama, Souichi Shiratori, Shuichi Ota, Ken Ichi Matsuoka, Makoto Onizuka, Takahiro Fukuda, Yoshiko Atsuta, Makoto Murata, Seitaro Terakura, Hideki Nakasone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Despite a strong association between acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus reactivation (CMVR), the joint effect of acute GVHD and CMVR on nonrelapse mortality (NRM) has not been well studied. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of CMVR on NRM stratified according to the development of acute GVHD using a landmark method. This study included 6078 patients who received their first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with a preemptive strategy for CMVR between 2008 and 2017. RESULTS: The cumulative incidences of grade 2-4 acute GVHD (G24GVHD), CMVR by day 100, and CMV disease by day 365 were 37.3%, 52.1%, and 2.9%, respectively. Patients with G24GVHD were associated with the subsequent development of CMVR, and the presence of CMVR also increased the risk of G24GVHD. In a landmark analysis at day 65, the cumulative incidence of NRM at 1 year was 5.4%, 10.0%, 13.9%, and 19.7% in patients with G24GVHD-/CMVR-, G24GVHD-/CMVR+, G24GVHD+/CMVR-, and G24GVHD+/CMVR+, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, CMVR was respectively associated with an increased risk of NRM by day 365 in patients without G24GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.05; P < .001) and with G24GVHD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.70; P = .014), but the interaction between G24GVHD and CMVR was not significant (P = .326). Subgroup analyses suggested that the joint effect of acute GVHD and CMVR might vary according to the baseline characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: These data regarding the close relationship between acute GVHD and CMVR should provide important implications for the treatment strategy after HCT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e620-e628
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2 2021


  • acute graft-versus-host disease
  • allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • cytomegalovirus reactivation
  • joint effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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