Effect of laser irradiation on generation and growth of whiskers in tin-electroplated film

Yutaka Mitooka, Koji Murakami, Makoto Hino, Masao Takamizawa, Jun Takada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In order to suppress generation and growth of whiskers, the effect of laser irradiation on tin-electroplated film on copper was studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction method. In the case of as-plated film, whiskers were generated on the electroplated tin film of 1 μm thickness within 432 ks. Residual stress of this film and the number of whiskers increased with the amount of copper-tin intermetallic compounds (Cu 6Sn 5) which developed between the plated film and the copper substrate. On the other hand, in electroplated tin film subjected to diode laser of 300 W for 100 to 1000 ms, no whiskers were formed even after 10 Ms. Residual stress of tin after laser irradiation was tensional at first, then, the stress did not change appreciably after 2.6 Ms. Uniform layer of Cu 6Sn 5 was formed immediately after laser irradiation, and the morphology showed no meaningful change even after 10 Ms. Whiskers are thought to be suppressed by covering the interface between tin and copper with layer of Cu 6Sn 5 and by reducing nonuniformity of stress field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-233
Number of pages8
JournalNippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009


  • Intermetallic compound
  • Tin plating
  • Whisker
  • laser irradiation
  • residual stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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