Effectiveness of a Virtual Program on Nurses’ Pain-Related Knowledge and Pain-Measurement Skills

Mio Ozawa, Kotomi Yamashita, Reo Kawano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Aim: To test whether a comprehensive virtual program for using pain scales to manage neonatal pain improved nurses’ knowledge and skill acquisition. Methods: This non-blind randomized controlled trial included 64 participants who were randomly divided into intervention and control groups; changes in scores between pre- and posttests were compared. Certified neonatal intensive care nurses were recruited from across Japan. The learning intervention group received online training in pain measurement using structured scales, such as the Face Scale for Pain Assessment of Preterm Infants and the Japanese version of the Premature Infant Pain Profile. The control group received no training. Independent t tests and χ2 tests were used to compare the baseline scores. The outcome measure was score change on a 40-point test (20 for knowledge and 20 for skill) before and after the e-learning program. Results: No differences in baseline data were found between the groups. Generalized linear regression models yielded a significant difference in the least squared means (95% confidence interval [CI]) for the amount of change in the total, knowledge, and skill scores between groups: 6.22 (4.18, 8.26; p < .001) for total score, 4.66 (3.37, 5.95; p < .001) for knowledge score, and 1.53 (0.06, 3.00; p = .041) for skill score. Conclusions: The results showed that the e-learning program improved nurses’ neonatal pain knowledge and pain-measurement skills compared with no training.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)720-727
Number of pages8
JournalPain Management Nursing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing


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