Effectiveness of Tactile Warning and Voice Command for Enhancing Safety of Drivers

Atsuo Murata, Toshihisa Doi, Waldemar Karwowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Safety is impaired when drivers are required to perform main driving task (tracking of own car, distance maintenance between own car and a leading car, and response to target objects) and secondary task simultaneously, for example, responding to target cars on the road while operating in-vehicle equipment. A two-factor (presence or absence of tactile warning by input modality (no secondary task, voice command for a secondary task, and manual input for a secondary task)) within-subject design of ten licensed males was used to investigate how to compensate for safety impairments (decreased performance of a main and a secondary task such as increased tracking error during driving or increased reaction time to target cars on the road). We investigated whether the use of tactile warnings transmitted via left and right thighs for detecting road objects and voice command to operate in-vehicle equipment could compensate for safety impairments such as the increased reaction time to target cars on the road, the increase of detection error of target cars, or increased tracking error in driving. The accuracy and speed of responses to target cars encountered during driving were reduced when a driver was asked to perform the main and the secondary task simultaneously compared to situations performing only the main driving task (tracking, distance maintenance, and response to target cars). The availability of a tactile warning system for road objects compensated for these diminished performance measures, including slower response times and the increased detection error of target cars. Likewise, voice command contributed to enhanced performance of the main driving task such as decrease of tracking error.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93854-93866
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Automotive safety
  • interference of multiple tasks
  • tactile warning
  • voice command

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Effectiveness of Tactile Warning and Voice Command for Enhancing Safety of Drivers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this