Effects of Tanden Breathing on Constipation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Tanden breathing, an ancient health technique, involves expiratory abdominal pressure breathing is practiced in Japan. In this study we examined the ability of Tanden breathing to relieve constipation. The study was designed as a stratified-block randomized controlled trial enrolling 20 participants. Nineteen were female and one was male, none were elderly. During the 6-week intervention period, the participants performed video-guided Tanden breathing about 10 min once day. We evaluated constipation using the Constipation Assessment Scale (CAS). There were significant differences in the mean CAS score between time points (baseline, 3 weeks after baseline, 6 weeks after baseline), groups (intervention and control), and their interaction (time×group) using repeated-measures analysis of variance. The control group showed no change in the mean CAS score; the mean CAS scores of the intervention group changed from 7.2 at baseline to 3.9 at 3 weeks and 3.1 at 6 weeks after baseline. A regression analysis of the difference in the mean CAS between baseline and 6 weeks later showed that the CAS of the intervention group was 4.3 points lower than that of the control group (95% confidence interval, 2.5-6.1). The results suggested that Tanden breathing is effective in relieving constipation among young women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-398
Number of pages8
JournalActa medica Okayama
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Breathing exercises
  • Constipation
  • Dantian
  • Mind−body therapy
  • Tanden breathing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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