Estimation of periodontal pocket surface area in small to medium dogs: a proof-of-concept study

Kazuya Tamura, Masako Tokuzen-Tai, Yasir Dilshad Siddiqui, Hitomi Tamura-Naito, Yoshiharu Nagahara, Kazu Hatanaka-Takeuchi, Tadashi Yamamoto, Shogo Takashiba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Periodontal disease is the most common dental disease in dogs. Although the systemic effects of periodontal disease have not been clarified in veterinary science, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of periodontal disease in clinical trials in the future. There have been a few clinical attempts made, however, to assess the severity of periodontal inflammation and its impact on the systemic health of dogs. Meanwhile, in the field of dentistry for humans, the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) and periodontal epithelial surface area (PESA) have been used to quantitatively assess the degree of periodontal disease affecting a single tooth as well as the overall extent of periodontitis. Recent studies have also suggested the use of these assessments to examine the relationship between periodontal inflammation and systemic health. Results: The estimation formula for a dog’s periodontal pocket surface area (PPSA), an alternative to PISA and PESA in humans, was established using body weight and periodontal pocket depth. Actual values were measured using extracted teeth from various dog breeds and sizes (2.3–25.0 kg of body weight) to obtain universal regression equations for PPSA. Altogether, 625 teeth from 73 dogs of 16 breeds were extracted and subsequently analyzed for morphological information. PPSA was measured in 61 dogs of 10 breeds with periodontal disease using the established estimation formulas, and the correlation between PPSA and preoperative blood chemistry data was analyzed accordingly. A strong correlation was found between PPSA and serum globulin (r = 0.71) while moderate correlations were found for C-reactive protein (r = 0.54) and serum albumin (r = -0.51). Conclusions: Estimation formulas using body weight and the 6-point probing depth were established for determining PPSA. Direct correlations between PPSA and several blood test results were observed in the study sample. Taken together, these results suggest that PPSA could be useful for evaluating the effects of periodontitis on systemic conditions in dogs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Dog
  • Estimation method
  • Periodontal pocket surface area
  • Periodontitis
  • Periodontology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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