Exclusion of the Possibility of “False Ripples” From Ripple Band High-Frequency Oscillations Recorded From Scalp Electroencephalogram in Children With Epilepsy

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: Ripple-band epileptic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be recorded by scalp electroencephalography (EEG), and tend to be associated with epileptic spikes. However, there is a concern that the filtration of steep waveforms such as spikes may cause spurious oscillations or “false ripples.” We excluded such possibility from at least some ripples by EEG differentiation, which, in theory, enhances high-frequency signals and does not generate spurious oscillations or ringing. Methods: The subjects were 50 pediatric patients, and ten consecutive spikes during sleep were selected for each patient. Five hundred spike data segments were initially reviewed by two experienced electroencephalographers using consensus to identify the presence or absence of ripples in the ordinary filtered EEG and an associated spectral blob in time-frequency analysis (Session A). These EEG data were subjected to numerical differentiation (the second derivative was denoted as EEG″). The EEG″ trace of each spike data segment was shown to two other electroencephalographers who judged independently whether there were clear ripple oscillations or uncertain ripple oscillations or an absence of oscillations (Session B). Results: In Session A, ripples were identified in 57 spike data segments (Group A-R), but not in the other 443 data segments (Group A-N). In Session B, both reviewers identified clear ripples (strict criterion) in 11 spike data segments, all of which were in Group A-R (p < 0.0001 by Fisher’s exact test). When the extended criterion that included clear and/or uncertain ripples was used in Session B, both reviewers identified 25 spike data segments that fulfilled the criterion: 24 of these were in Group A-R (p < 0.0001). Discussion: We have demonstrated that real ripples over scalp spikes exist in a certain proportion of patients. Ripples that were visualized consistently using both ordinary filters and the EEG″ method should be true, but failure to clarify ripples using the EEG″ method does not mean that true ripples are absent. Conclusion: The numerical differentiation of EEG data provides convincing evidence that HFOs were detected in terms of the presence of such unusually fast oscillations over the scalp and the importance of this electrophysiological phenomenon.

Original languageEnglish
Article number696882
JournalFrontiers in Human Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - Jun 15 2021


  • child
  • epilepsy
  • false ripple
  • fast oscillation (FO)
  • high-frequency oscillation (HFO)
  • scalp EEG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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