Extending fitts' law to a three-dimensional pointing task

Atsuo Murata, Hirokazu Iwase

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

122 Citations (Scopus)


An attempt was made to extend Fitts' law to a three-dimensional movement (pointing) task to enhance its predictive performance in this domain. An experiment was conducted in which 10 subjects performed three-dimensional pointing movements under the manipulation of target size, distance to target and direction to target. As expected, the duration of these three-dimensional movements was rather variable and affected markedly by direction to target. As a result, the variance in the movement times produced was not satisfactorily explained by the conventional Fitts' model. The conventional model was extended by incorporating a directional parameter into the model. The extended model was shown to better fit the data than the conventional Fitts' model, both in terms of r2 and the standard error of the residual between the measured movement time and the value predicted by model fit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)791-805
Number of pages15
JournalHuman Movement Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Fitts' law
  • Human movement
  • Index of difficulty
  • Movement direction
  • Three-dimensional extension of Fitts' model
  • Two-dimensional pointing task

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology


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