Extract of Vinegar "Kurosu" from Unpolished Rice Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Cancer Cells

Kumiko Nanda, N. Miyoshi, Y. Nakamura, Y. Shimoji, Y. Tamura, Y. Nishikawa, K. Uenakai, H. Kohno, T. Tanaka

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57 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of the ethyl acetate extract of "Kurosu" (EK), Japanese traditional vinegar from unpolished rice, on the proliferation of a variety of human cancer cell lines were investigated by using the alamar blue assay. Cancer cell lines included colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), lung carcinoma (A549), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), bladder carcinoma (5637), and prostate carcinoma (LNCaP) cells. EK inhibited the proliferation of all tested cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with inhibition mostly pronounced in Caco-2 cells (up to 62% inhibition at a dose level of 0.025%). Flow cytometry of EK-treated Caco-2 cells showed a decrease in cell number in the G2/M phase and an increase in the sub-G1 phase (apoptotic). In addition, DNA fragmentation was detected in Caco-2 cells cultured with EK by immunostaining. RT-PCR analysis revealed p21 mRNA expression was induced in EK-treated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, PARP cleavage was promoted in EK-treated Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that EK causes G0/G1 arrest through p21 induction and, thus, is a potential apoptosis inducer in Caco-2 cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-75
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • "Kurosu"
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell cycle
  • Human cancer cell line
  • Proliferation
  • Vinegar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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