Purpose: We aimed to document the clinical usefulness of uncalcined and unsintered hydroxyapatite (u-HA) particles and poly-L-lactide (PLLA) composite materials and their advantageous properties. Methods: Between April 2016 and March 2018, five patients required anterior maxillary alveolar ridge augmentation using fixation with u-HA/PLLA screws for an onlay block bone graft harvested from the mandibular ramus at our institute. Bone biopsies were obtained from the dental implantation site following bone healing for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical (IHC) measurements. Results: Many stromal cells were positive for Osterix, RUNX2, and SOX9 but were negative for CD68. On cell counting, based on IHC staining for Osterix, RUNX2, SOX9 and CD68 from peripheral u-HA/PLLA screw or bone areas, both areas consistently showed no significant difference in terms of Osterix, RUNX2, and SOX9. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed direct bone connection to the biomaterials, and no inflammatory cells infiltrated the areas surrounding the bone or artificial material. Area between the bone and u-HA/PLLA screw was seamless with no boundary. Round small cells and immature fibroblasts were noted. The new bone showed the presence of bone lamellae, normal osteocytes, and osteoblasts. Conclusion: The u-HA/PLLA materials showed excellent biodegradability and bioactive osteoconductivity. In addition, this material induced no apparent inflammatory or foreign body reactions following implantation, and it directly bonded to the human bone. Therefore, this u-HA/PLLA material seems ideal and most suitable for use as a substitute for osteosynthesis.
- Bone regeneration
- Uncalcined and unsintered hydroxyapatite
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Medicine