Flame retardance-donated lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNFs) by the Mannich reaction with (amino-1,3,5-triazinyl)phosphoramidates and their properties

Fumiaki Ono, Takumi Okihara, Noboru Osaka, Noriyuki Nagaoka, Yuji Kameoka, Akira Ishikawa, Hironari Ooki, Takumi Ito, Daisuke Todome, Shinya Uemoto, Mitsuaki Furutani, Tsutomu Inokuchi, Kenji Okada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nitrogen/phosphorus-containing melamines (NPCM), a durable flame-retardant, were prepared by the successive treatment of ArOH (Ar = BrnC6H5-n, n = 0, 1, 2, and 3) with POCl3 and melamine monomer. The prepared flame-retardants were grafted through the CH2 unit to lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNFs) by the Mannich reaction. The resulting three-component products were characterized using FT-IR (ATR) and EA. The thermal behavior of the NPCM-treated LCNF fabric samples was determined using TGA and DSC analyses, and their flammability resistances were evaluated by measuring their Limited Oxygen Index (LOI) and the UL-94V test. A multitude of flame retardant elements in the fabric samples increased the LOI values as much as 45 from 20 of the untreated LCNFs. Moreover, the morphology of both the NPCM-treated LCNFs and their burnt fabrics was studied with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The heat release lowering effect of the LCNF fabric against the water-based paint was observed with a cone calorimeter. Furthermore, the mechanical properties represented as the tensile strength of the NPCM-treated LCNF fabrics revealed that the increase of the NPCM content in the PP-composites led to an increased bending strength with enhancing the flame-retardance. This journal is

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3300-3308
Number of pages9
JournalRSC Advances
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jan 26 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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