Fluid evolution and transport during metamorphism: evidence from the Llano Uplift, Texas

Gray E. Bebout, William D. Carlson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


A field, petrologic and stable isotopic investigation of the marbles and calc-silicates of the 1.15 b.y. Valley Spring Gneiss documents the dilution of internally evolved CO2-rich fluids by externally derived aqueous fluids introduced along channelways. Reaction textures within calcsilicates record the evolution through time of initially CO2-rich fluids toward increasingly more aqueous compositions. Assemblage zonations within calc-silicates require equilibration within local gradients of the mole fraction of CO2 in the fluid, and suggest that the infiltration of aqueous fluids was largely channelized along more permeable lithologies. Localized depletions in 13C and 18O corroborate petrologic evidence for channelized infiltration. Isotopic compositions reflect both devolatilization and the introduction of low-δ18O fluids; estimated minimum oxygen-equivalent fluid-to-rock ratios are near unity. Both mineralogical and stable isotopic systematics document the essential role of infiltration in driving decarbonation reactions during calc-silicate formation. The calc-silicate assemblages which equilibrated with fluids of the lowest mole fraction of CO2 record isotopic exchange equilibrium with fluids of δ18O typical of those derived from "normal granites", as do the granitic aplites and pegmatites which transect most calcsilicate occurrences. Thus the infiltrating fluids are believed to be genetically linked to the intrusion of a suite of granitic plutons emplaced after the peak of regional metamorphism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)518-529
Number of pages12
JournalContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1986
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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